Current Insect and Disease Conditions at KTFREC
   

Fruit Tree Books

Caution: The observations, conditions, and recommendations reported on this page are applicable only to the eastern counties of West Virginia. Tthe information reported here is to be used for making orchard management decisions in the immediate proximity of Kearneysville, West Virginia. Fruit producers outside the eastern West Virginia area are encouraged to consult their state extension specialists for information similar to that provided here.  

ladybug1.gif (1229 bytes)Weekly pheromone trap data and degree-day accumulations (updated every M-W-F) from KTFREC. Trap data and degree-days are presented - questions about these data should be directed to Dr. Daniel Frank, Entomology Extension Specialist.

KTFREC Weather Station

NOAA Climate Forecast

  • July 27, 2015
    • Nice 10-day (so far) dry spell. Getting some dew but not every night...
    • Accumulated wetting hours (AWH) = 411.
  • July 16 - 17, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 2 PM to 7/16 to 8 AM 7/17 with 0.09 inches of rain. Our instruments showed 11 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 68 F. Infection period #25.
  • July 14, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 2 AM to 9 AM July 14 with 0.19 inches of rain. Our instruments showed 6 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 69 F. Infection period #24.
    • Accumulated wetting hours (AWH) = 373.
  • July 8 - 9, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 10 PM July 8to 5 AM July 9 with 0.04 inches of rain. Our instruments showed 7 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 73.5 F. Infection period #23.
  • July 6 - 7, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 1 AM July 6 to 9 AM July 7 with 0.12 inches of rain. Our instruments showed 9 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 70 F. Infection period #22.
  • July 5, 2015
    • Accumulated wetting hours (AWH) = 325. Scout low areas in the orchard for signs of sooty blotch and flyspeck.
  • July 3 - July 4, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 11 PM July 3 to 3 PM July 4 with 0.42 inches of rain. Our instruments showed 13 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 70.6 F. Infection period #21.
  • June 30 - July 1, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 10 PM June 30 to 7 AM July 1 with 1.61 inches of rain. Our instruments showed 10 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 65.8 F. Infection period #20.
  • June 30, 2015
    • Monthly rainfall for June at KTFREC is 7.9 inches - well above the 30-year average of 3.4 inches.
    • Accumulated wetting hours (AWH) = 299..
  • June 27 - 28, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 2 AM June 27 to 8 AM June 28 with 1.42 inches of rain. Our instruments showed 31 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 64.4 F. Infection period #19.
  • June 25 - 26, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 5 PM June 25 to 7 AM June 26 with 0.04 inches of rain. Our instruments showed 15 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 68.9 F. Infection period #18.
  • June 20 - 21, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 7 PM June 20 to 7 AM June 21 with 1.20 inches of rain. Our instruments showed 12 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 72.7 F. Infection period #17. Very favorable for bitter rot and white rot infection on apples.
  • June 19, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 1 AM to 7 AM June 19 with 0.04 inches of rain. Our instruments showed 6 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 71.4 F. Infection period #16.
    • Accumulated wetting hours: For a petal fall date of May 6, we've accumulated 223 wetting hours during the period beginning on the 10th day after petal fall. We record accumulated wetting hours (AWH) from rain or dew starting 10 days after petal fall and use the data to predict the development of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungal complex. The action threshold is 250 AWH.
  • June 17 - 18, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 1 PM June 17 to 10 AM June 18 with 0.41 inches of rain. Our instruments showed 22 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 70 F. Infection period #15.
  • June 8 - 9, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 5 PM June 8 to 4 AM June 9 with 0.65 inches of rain. Our instruments showed 12 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 70.1 F. Infection period #14.
    • Accumulated wetting hours: For a petal fall date of May 6, we've accumulated 172 wetting hours during the period beginning on the 10th day after petal fall. We record accumulated wetting hours (AWH) from rain or dew starting 10 days after petal fall and use the data to predict the development of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungal complex. The action threshold is 250 AWH.
  • June 3 - 5, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 11 PM June 3 to 9 AM June 5 with 0.63 inches of rain. Our instruments showed 35 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 58.5 F. Infection period #13.
  • May 30 - June 2, 2015
    • 1.56 inches of rain, 11 hours of wetting at 70.3 F; followed by a cloudburst and then extended dew for an additional 15 hours of wetting at 69 F; and then more wetting last night and into today for an additional 21 hours at 63.8 F. Scab infection #12.
  • May 26 - 27, 2015
    • 0.03 inches of rain but not with significant wetting hours accumulated.
  • May 21 -22, 2015
    • 0.10 inches of rain beginning at 4:00 AM on 5/21 and continuing leaf wetness until midnight on 5/22 with 16 hours of wetting at 52 F. Scab infection #11.
  • May 18 - 19, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 9 PM May 18 with 1.01 inches of rain over about 4 hours. Our instruments showed 12 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 70 F. Scab infection #10 and excellent conditions for cedar apple rust infection.
  • May 16 - 17, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 5 PM May 16 with 0.96 inches of rain in less than an hour. It took a long time to dry off (about noon the next day) because of high relative humidity and our instruments showed 18 hours of wetting at an average temperature of 68 F. Scab infection #9 and good conditions for cedar apple rust infection.
  • May 7, 2015
    • Here is our 10-day fire blight forecast. The HIGH RISK period that began on May 4 continues daily through May 16, although with the high temperatures we're experiencing we may be finished with bloom conditions before the end of the forecast period. INFECTION will occur with any wetting event during this period (rain, fog, dew, and sustained high relative humidity). Conditions continue to be perfect for one of the worst fire blight years in recent history.
  • May 6 - 7, 2015
    • Wet conditions from 4 PM May 6 to 8 AM May 7 with 13 hours of wetting at 65.6 F and 0.41 inches of rain. Scab infection #8 and good conditions for rust infection, as well..
  • May 4, 2015
    • The next HIGH RISK period begins on May 4 and continues daily through May 13. INFECTION will occur with any wetting event during this period (rain, fog, dew, and sustained high relative humidity). Conditiona are perfect for one of the worst fire blight years in recent history.
  • May 1 - 2, 2015
    • More moisture from 7 PM to 8 AM with 14 hours of wetting at 54.9 F and 0.04 inches of rain. Scab infection #7.
  • April 30 - May 1, 2015
    • Wet period beginning at 2 PM on April 30 and continuing wet until 8 AM on May 1, with 19 hours of wetting at 55.8 F and 0.52 inches of rain. Scab infection #6 and good conditions for cedar apple rust and quince rust.
  • April 25 - 26, 2015
    • Wetting period starting at 7 PM on 4/25 and continuing to 8 AM on 4/26 for 14 hours of leaf wetness at 41.0 F and 0.32 inches of rainfall. (not and apple scab infection - we need about 20 hours of wetting at this temperature)..
  • April 22, 2015
    • Fire blight infection was possible on 4/20 if you had open blossoms on 4/18.
  • April 20 - 21, 2015
    • Night time wetting for 7 hours at 61 F. Rust infection possible. Not a scab infection in low inoculum orchards.
  • April 19 - 20, 2015
    • Wetting period starting at 7 PM on 4/19 and continuing to 9 AM on 4/20 for 15 hours of leaf wetness at 52.2 F and 1.27 inches of rainfall. (apple scab #5).
    • Fire blight infection was possible on 4/20 if you had open blossoms on 4/18.
  • April 16 - 17, 2015
    • Wetting period starting at 11 PMon 4/16 and continuing to 7 AM on 4/17 for 9 hours of leaf wetness at 53.9 F and 0.02 inches of rainfall. Not an infection period in low inoculum orchards.
  • April 14 - 15, 2015
    • Wetting period starting 4:00 AM on 4/14 to 9:00 AM on 4/15 for a total of 27 hours of leaf wetness at an average temperature of 53.5 F and 0.43 inches of rainfall. We had 11 hours of wetting above 55 F, so this infection period for apple scab was also our first infection period for cedar apple rust and quince rust if plant development was favorable (blossoms are susceptible to quince rust beginning at the tight cluster stage). (apple scab #4) (rust #1).
  • April 9 - 10, 2015
    • Apple scab infection period (#3).
  • April 8, 2015
    • Apple scab infection period (#2).
  • April 7, 2015
    • Apple scab infection periods (#1).
  • April 6, 2016
    • Apple "green tip" stage of development marks the beginning of our 2015 growing season.
  • April 1, 2015
    • There is a forecast for "apple scab weather" on April 3, April 5, and the potential for extended wetting April 7 - 10. Apple trees showing developmental stages green tip or beyond should be protected from infection.
    • Dr. Kari Peter (Penn State Extension) prepared an excellent write up on how to prepare your 2015 fire blight management program. It can be found here. She forgot to mention that the new Maryblyt version 7.1 can be downloaded here.
  • March 25, 2015
    • First apple scab ascospores caught in spore traps at Winchester AREC.
  • October 29, 2014
    • End-of-season Disease Management Reminders
      Peach leaf curl
      should be controlled in the spring and/or fall with a fungicide application before the buds swell. If leaf curl was severe in your peach and nectarine blocks in 2014, and you made your fall fungicide application to control the disease for 2014, a spring fungicide application will be needed to ensure complete disease control. In orchards where careful monitoring is practiced and where leaf curl has not been present for two or more years, this spray can be omitted until the disease begins to recur. For best control of peach leaf curl, make a dilute application of fungicide under calm conditions, making sure to cover each bud thoroughly. Using one of the fixed coppers for the leaf curl spray may help suppress bacterial spot in blocks where this disease is a problem. See the Spray Bulletin for fungicides and rates of application.
    • Apple scab urea application: A spray of 5% solution of urea (46-0-0) in water may be applied as late as green tip to apple leaves on the ground if this was not done in the autumn (42 lb. urea in 100 gal. water, applied at 100 gallons/acre). The nitrogen will hasten leaf litter decomposition and will result in reduced ascospore production by 60 to 90%, thereby changing high-inoculum orchards into low-inoculum orchards. Moving leaves from under the trees to the row middles with a leaf blower and then shredding them with a flail mower is a good alternative to the urea spray for small acreages on level land (mud, rocks, and weeds can turn this into a futile exercise). If you had enough scab that you easily noticed it at the end of last year’s growing season, one of these inoculum reduction measures should be implemented. If the urea spray is used, remember to reduce other nitrogen applications accordingly. I estimate that about half of the urea nitrogen will land in the sodded row middles, and thus will not be available to the trees.
  • Spring will be here soon! Will you be ready?
  • Average daily temperatures and records
  • Average last freeze date map

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