Fact Sheets

 

    Forage and Livestock Systems Home

The following fact sheets were developed based on research and experience in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic United States.  If you are outside this climatic environment consult with your local extension service to see if this information is applicable to the forage species adapted to your climate and soils.

 

Forage-Livestock System Components

       Vision
       Goals
       Resources
       Marketing

Forage-Livestock Production Centers

       Forage Production

         Soils and Soil Fertility
         Crop Growth
         Forage Species and Varieties
         Legumes
         Crop Establishment
         Integrated Pest Management
         Weeds Affecting Forage Crops
         Diseases of Forage Crops
         Insects Affecting Forage Crops      

       Forage Utilization

         Forage Quality
         Winter Grazing
         Fencing
         Watering
         Forage Quality
         Fescue Endophyte Testing
         Grazing Management
         Hay and Haylage Production
         Drought Management

       Animal production

         Genetics and Selection
         Animal Nutrition
         Drought Management
         Health Management
         Forage Quality

       Marketing

       Sustainable Agriculture Systems

         Social
         Economic
         Ecological

       Example Forage Livestock Systems 

Forage-Livestock System Components  Fact Sheet #
   
Forage-Livestock System Components Discussion  
   
Vision  
   
Goals  
Enterprise Budgets  
   
Resources  
Resource Identification (Inventory) (93)

1104

   
Marketing (see Marketing Under Production Centers)  
   
Forage-Livestock System Production Centers  
   
Forage Production  
   
Soils and soil fertility  
Sampling Soils (95)

Interpreting the West Virginia Soil Test Report   
Forage Fertilization Based on Yield and Management Goals (96) 

Nitrogen Fertilization for Early Pasture (96) 

The Value of Agricultural Limestone (97)

How to Reduce the Potential for Grass Tetany (94) 

Box Spreader Modification for Poultry Litter (95) 

Poultry Litter Improves Forage Quality and Yield

 

Winter Cover Crops (95)

 

Considerations for Organic Waste Utilization in Agriculture  
Phosphorus Index for Nutrient Management  
Agriculture Practices and Nitrate Pollution of Water   
   
Crop Growth  
Plant Growth and Development as the Basis of Forage Management (12-93) 

5004

   
Forage Species and Varieties  
Forage Species Adapted to the Northeast

5823

   
Grasses  
Orchardgrass and Tall Fescue Varieties (97)

5122

Orchardgrass and Tall Fescue Variety Responses in Forage Livestock Systems in West Virginia.  
Tall Fescue Management (10-93)(PDF)

5184

The Tall Fescue Endophyte Story      
Annual Ryegrass Performance in Western Maryland - 1998   
Annual Ryegrass Forage Management in the Mid-Atlantic

775

Marshall Annual Ryegrass Demonstration - 1998  
Small Grains as Forage Crops (10-95)

5192 

Sweet Vernal Grass  
Manage Winter Feeding System to Meet Livestock Needs  
The Production and Management of Sudan Grass in WV  
Sudangrass:  Studies on its Yield Management, Chemical Composition, and Nutritive Value  
   
Legumes  
Disease Ratings of Red Clover and Alfalfa Varieties (12-94) 

5190

10 Great Reasons for Growing Clover - Oregon Clover Commission  
Red Clover - Oregon Clover Commission  
White Clover - Oregon Clover Commission  
   
Crop Establishment  
Seeding Rates of Forage Species When Seeded Alone or in Mixtures (94) 

5302

Combining Forage Species in a Seeding Mixture (93) 

5304

Frost and Walk-in Clover Seedings (95) 

5312

No-Till Seedings (97)

5314

Walk-in Seedings  
Planting and Managing Switchgrass for Forage, 

418-013

Wildlife, and Conservation  local access (VPI)  
   
Integrated Pest Management  
Insect Metamorphosis

4002

   
Weeds Affecting Forage Crops  
Solutions to Weed Problems

 

Control of Common Pasture and Hayfield Weeds in Virginia and West Virginia

 

Horsenettle Management In West Virginia Pastures and Hayfields

 

Control of Autumn Olive, Multiflora Rose, and Tartarian Honeysuckle (94) 

5412

Control of Autumn Olive, Multiflora Rose, and Tartarian Honeysuckle, Chemical Information (96) 

5416

Mechanical Control of the Multiflora Rose (94) 

5420

Multiflora Rose Control local access (Ohio State)

857

Poison Ivy   
Johnsongrass and Shattercane  
   
Diseases of Forage Crops  
Disease Ratings of Red Clover and Alfalfa Varieties (12-94) 

5190

   
Insects Affecting Forage Crops  
   
Forage Utilization  
   
Grazing Management  
 Cost of Alternative Feeds (06) PDF Format   
Hay Production Costs Cut By Proper Use of Legumes or Nitrogen Fertilizer (06) PDF Format  
Point Count System for Measuring Ground Cover from Digital Photos (PowerPoint)  
The Value of Agricultural Limestone (05) PDF Format  Excel Spreadsheet  
Horse Pasture Management (05) PDF Format  
Pasture Management for Pasture-finished Beef  
Calf Performance Related to Pasture Quality and Supplements (PDF format)  
Growing and Selling Pasture-Finished Beef: Results of a Nationwide Survey (PDF format)  
Pasture Forage Quality in West Virginia (PDF format)  
A Falling Plate Meter for Estimating Pasture Forage Mass (PDF format)  
Estimating Pasture Forage Mass From Pasture Height (PDF format)  
Cut Hay Early to Get the Most Out of Plastic Wrapping (PDF format) - http://www.wvu.edu/~agexten/pubnwsltr/TRIM/5836.pdf  
Meeting the Challenges of Pasture-finished Beef (PDF format)  
W.Va. Pasture Quality - 1999-2001 Information (PDF Format -31pp)   
Pasture-Based Beef Systems for Appalachia Project  
Principles of Management-Intensive Grazing

5828 

Creep Grazing (03)

5834

Creep Grazing (96)

 

Principles of Grazing Management (92)

5710 

Grazing Systems (92)

5712

Number and Size of Paddocks in a Grazing System (92) 

5718

Why Use Management-intense Grazing (MiG)?

5720

Overgrazing Can Hurt Environment, Your Pocketbook

 

Developing a 12-Month Forage System (92)

5714

Annual Forage Budget - Work Sheet (92)

5716

Forage Budgeting Helps Producers Manage Livestock  
A Pasture Plate for Estimating Forage Yield (2-96) 

5022

Permanent Pasture Management (96)  
Improving Dairy Profitability by Pasture Management  
Managing Virginia's Steep Pastureslocal access- (VPI)

418-005

Controlled Grazing of Virginia's Pastures local access- (VPI)

418-012

Pasture Management Bulletin local access- (New York, Darrell L. Emmick)  
Controlled Grazing local access- (NC State at Clemson)  
Grazing Alfalfa Successfully local access- (Sustainable Farming Connection)  
Rational Grazing University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

id143

   
Winter Grazing  
Manage Winter Feeding System to Meet Livestock Needs local access- (Alberta)  
Cattle Winter Sites, Managing for Good Stewardship  local access- (Alberta)

420-580-2

Want To Extend Grazing Season?  
Extending Grazing Season Reduces Costs  
Maximizing Fall and Winter Grazing of Beef Cows and Stocker Cattle local access -  (Ohio State)

872

Number and Size of Paddocks in a Grazing System (92) 

5718 

Virginia Snow Cover Risk & History  
West Virginia Snow Cover Risk & History  
   
Fencing  
High-Tensile Wire Fencing (NRAES 11) (87)

5742

   
Watering  
Estimating Flow in Streams  
   
Forage Quality  
Pasture Forage Quality in West Virginia: An On-Farm Research Report for 1999 to 2001  (06) PDF Format  
Harvest and Storage Management Affect Hay Quality  (06) PDF Format  
The Nutritional Value of Rotationally Grazed Pasture in Jefferson County (PDF)  
Anti-Quality Factors in Rangeland and Pastureland Forages local access- University of Idaho-USDA   

73

Managing Forages for Animal Production: 1949-1969 History and Research Findings  Blaser et. al Res. Bul 45 Va Tech  (PDF)

 

Forage Quality - Protein

5010

Forage Quality - Fiber and Energy

5012

Forage Quality Minerals 

5016

Improving Dairy Profitability by Pasture Management  
Using a Forage Test to Identify Improvements in Forage Management 

5032

   
Fescue Endophyte Testing  
WVU Soil Test Summary Data  
Understanding Forage Analysis Important To Livestock Producers  
Sampling Pastures for Nutritive Analysis (PDF format)  
Sampling Hay and Haylage (PDF format)  
Forage Testing Labs  
A Pasture Plate for Estimating Forage Yield (2-96) 

5022

Forage Moisture Determination NRAES 59 (3-93) 

5030

Hay Quality - The Foundation for Low Cost Winter Feeding  
   
Hay and Haylage  
Proper Handling and Curing of Hay  
Hay Quality vs Hay Quantity    
Using Hydraulics as a Scale on the Farm (PDF)  
Silage and Hay Preservation (NRAES 5)  
Hay Round Bale Storage (95)

5760 

Hazard Alert! Handling and Storage of Grain and Silage   
   
Animal Production  
   
Cattle  
   
Genetics and Selection  
Extension Effort in Beef Cattle Breeding & Selection   
Quality and Yield Grades in Beef Cattle

10202

All In All, Livestock Is An Efficient Resource  
Challenges, Changes, and Opportunities in the Beef Industry  
Genetics for Profit  
   
Animal Nutrition  
Human Health Effects of Fatty Acids in Beef  (PDF format)  
Improving Dairy Profitability by Pasture Management  
Optimize Health Through Nutrition  
The Effects of Cold Stress on Cattle  
Mineral Supplementation Important For Beef Cattle  
   
Software for Nutrition and Ration Balancing  
   
Beef Nutrition and Performance   
  Cattle System II Feed Lot - Spread Sheet (save to disk & view with spread sheet program)  
  Cattle System II Feed Lot - Documentation   
  Cattle System II - Intensive Grazing - Spread Sheet (save to disk & view with spread sheet program)  
  Cattle System II - Intensive Grazing Documentation  
   
Dairy Nutrition Performance  
   Dairy Pasture Ration Balancer   - Spread Sheet (save to disk & view with spread sheet program)  
   Dairy Pasture Ration Balancer Documentation  
   
Health Management  
A Comprehensive Health Program  
Vaccine Handling is Important for Cattle Management  
A Black Bag Saves Vet Costs  
Dealing with a Mysterious Death  
Acorns Can be Deadly   
Hardware Disease  
Winter Pinkeye? Yes, It's Possible  
Cattle Grub Biology and Management (95)

10621

Horn Fly Biology and Management (95)

10623 

Face Fly Biology and Management (95)

10625 

Stable Fly Biology and Management (95)

10627

House Fly Biology and Management (95)

10629 

Lice: A Winter Skin Parasite  
Cost-Effective Parasite Strategy  
Reduce the Potential for Grass Tetany  
   
Drought Management  
Effects of Drought Conditions on Commonly Fed Forages  
Forage Management for Drought Recovery  
Fall Drought Management for Pastures and Meadows  
Ammonia Treatment to Increase Forage Quality  
Nitrate Toxicity in Drought-Stressed Forages  
Alternative Feeds Extends Limited Supplies  
Alternative Feeds for Extension Limited Feed Supplies  
Substituting Grain for Hay  
Fibrous Feed Alternative - Soybean Hulls  
Tips on Managing Ewe Flocks with Reduced Feed Resources  
Keep an Eye on Horse Health during Drought  
Alternative Rations for Maintaining Pregnant Beef Cows  
Guidelines for Developing Dairy Rations  
Rations for Growing Cattle  
Beef Cattle Management Strategies During a Drought  
Alternative Rations for Maintaining Pregnant Beef Cows  
Guidelines for Developing Dairy Rations  
Rations for Growing Cattle  
Lactating Holstein Cow Rations for Drought  
Beef Cattle Management Strategies During a Drought  
Drought Related URLs  
   
Marketing  
Feeder Cattle Grades Change for 2001  
Develop a Feeder Cattle Program With an Identity  
Get Your Cattle Ready for Feedlot Program  
Wean or Sell Calves? A Management/Marketing Option for Feeder Calf Producers  
Beef Industry's First Goal: Satisfy Consumers  
A Good Year To Shorten Breeding Season  
Requirements for 2001 - 2002 West Virginia Bull Evaluation Program  
   
    Board Sale Price  
    Herd Listing  
    West Virginia Quality Assurance Feeder Cattle Sales     
    Quality Assurance Sales  
    Tele/Board Cattle Sales  
    Tele/Board Cattle Sales - General Sales Terms and Conditions  
    WV Quality Assurance Feeder Cattle - Health Program   
   
Sheep and Goats  
Creep Grazing Lambs on Tall Fescue Pastures  WVU Agr and For Expt Sta   

695

Biologic and Economic Aspects of Spring and Fall Breeding of Sheep   WVU Agr Expt Sta  

562

   
Horses  
Horses in West Virginia: A basic health care manual for horse owners   WVU Dept of Ag  
   
Deer  
Farming & Ranching DEER in North America - North America Deer Farmers Association's Cervid Livestock Foundation  
   
Sustainable Agriculture Systems  
   
Social  
Early American Soil Conservation

449

Real Property: Leasing Land for Hunting and Other Recreational Uses   R.D. - 1997

726

Real Property: Landowners' Rights and Responsibilities in West Virginia   R.D. - 1997

702

   
Economic  
   
Ecological  
Winter Cover Crops (95)

3502 

Why a Nutrient Management Plan?  
   
Example Forage-Livestock Systems  
Seasonal Dairy on Pasture: The Forgey Files local access- (Sustainable Farming Connection)

 

American Farmland Trust Grass-Based Farming Systems

 

Intensive Grazing/Seasonal Dairying: The Mahoning County Dairy Program

 

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